The rationale for pursuing breeder reactors—sometimes explicit and sometimes implicit—was based on the following key assumptions:, There are some past anti-nuclear advocates that have become pro-nuclear power as a clean source of electricity since breeder reactors effectively recycle most of their waste. During the construction of the Chernobyl power plant, the reactors were constructed hastily and with sub-grade materials because the men in charge were in a rush, as they were behind schedule. Reactor Dynamics Zero Power Criticality vs. Power Operation Reactor Kinetics vs. Peter Odell. Its core would measure about 2.3 metres in diameter by 1.1 metres in height and contain 16 tonnes of fuel.  It started generating power on 21 July 2011. Breeder reactor, nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable material than it consumes to generate energy.  As of 2013[update] the UK had shown interest in the PRISM reactor and was working in concert with France to develop ASTRID. Breeding fuel cycles attracted renewed interest because of their potential to reduce actinide wastes, particularly plutonium and minor actinides. ecology.at. Fast Breeder Reactor – Nuclear Power Plant Reactor Such reactors are designed to produce more fissile material (Plutonium) than they consume (Thorium Th-232). [needs update], The China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is a 25 MW(e) prototype for the planned China Prototype Fast Reactor (CFRP). The first consists of fission products, the leftover fragments of fuel atoms after they have been split to release energy. H. Böck Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna, Austria email@example.com. Many types of breeder reactor are possible: A 'breeder' is simply a reactor designed for very high neutron economy with an associated conversion rate higher than 1.0. Furthermore, only seven long-lived fission product isotopes have half-lives longer than a hundred years, which makes their geological storage or disposal less problematic than for transuranic materials.. The understanding of the radiation damage, coolant interactions, stresses and temperatures are necessary for the safe operation of any reactor core. As of 2019, two FBRs are being operated for power generation in Russia. You can help the. , The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) is also planned as a thorium thermal breeder. Conventional reactors use uranium as fuel and produce some plutonium. A quantity of natural uranium metal equivalent to a block about the size of a milk crate delivered once per month would be all the fuel such a 1 gigawatt reactor would need. Technology and Energy Supply. This was considered an important measure of breeder performance in early years, when uranium was thought to be scarce. ‡ over 200 ka: Long-lived fission product, Nuclear waste became a greater concern by the 1990s. All materials used to date in sodium-cooled fast reactors have known limits, as explored in ONR-RRR-088 review. The neutrons that are emitted by 235U and other isotopes when they are subjected to a nuclear chain reaction normally travel at a significant speed. Whereas light-water reactors (LWR: including PWR, BWR and SCWR) employ regular water as a neutron moderator, fast reactors do not.  Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steel is viewed as the long-term radiation resistant fuel-cladding material that overcome the shortcomings of today's material choices. Breeder reactors are nuclear reactors with a purpose of turning Depleted Isotope Cells into Re-Enriched Uranium Cells. There are two categories of breeder reactors, based on the speed of the neutrons. Reactor shutdown system is intended to protect the reactor from neutronic and thermal Incidents. ecology.at. India's three stage nuclear power programme, "Nuclear Fusion : WNA - World Nuclear Association", http://gsdm.u-tokyo.ac.jp/file/140528gps_chang.pdf, "Pyroprocessing Technologies: RECYCLING USED NUCLEAR FUEL FOR A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FUTURE", "www.ne.anl.gov/pdfs/12_Pyroprocessing_bro_5_12_v14%5B6%5D.pdf", "SCALE 5 Analysis of BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Isotopic Compositions for Safety Studies", "Lecture 4, Fuel Depletion & Related Effects", "Fast breeder reactor: Is advanced fuel necessary? [needs update], Kirk Sorensen, former NASA scientist and chief nuclear technologist at Teledyne Brown Engineering, has long been a promoter of thorium fuel cycle and particularly liquid fluoride thorium reactors. In 2012 an FBR called the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor was due to be completed and commissioned. Surrounding the central reaction chamber are all of the systems that will work in concert to create a 150-million-degree plasma: the powerful magnet systems, as well as heating and current drive, diagnostic, cryogenic, cooling, fuelling, vacuum and power supply systems. The type of coolants, temperatures and fast neutron spectrum puts the fuel cladding material (normally austenitic stainless or ferritic-martensitic steels) under extreme conditions. þ neutron poison (thermal neutron capture cross section greater than 3k barns) , BOR-60 (first criticality 1969) was 60 MW, with construction started in 1965. Because commercial reactors were never designed as breeders, they do not convert enough uranium-238 into plutonium to replace the uranium-235 consumed. The idea was, during Chernobyl's construction, that if they simply increased the size of the RBMK's, they would thus increase the power output. A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material than it consumes. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) Prof.Dr. m metastable isomer 1.2.3 Radioisotopic Energy Either radioactive isotopes (e.g., 238Pu, 210Po) or radioactive ﬁssion products (e.g., 85Kr, 90Sr) can produce decay heat that can be utilized to produce electric power. The conventional 'Once-Through' reactor, uses 3% Uranium-235 which has an abundance of 0.7%. Remove the soil to the depth of one spade. Aside from water cooled, there are many other types of breeder reactor currently envisioned as possible. BR-1 (1955) was 100W (thermal) was followed by BR-2 at 100 kW and then the 5MW BR-5. The third and final core of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station 60 MWe reactor was a light water thorium breeder, which began operating in 1977. The volume of waste they generate would be reduced by a factor of about 100 as well. Borate (boric acid) is added to this water to absorb neutrons during the early part of new fuel cycle. This is typically achieved by replacing the light metal fluorides (e.g. Another fuel option is metal alloys, typically a blend of uranium, plutonium, and zirconium (used because it is "transparent" to neutrons).  Hiraoka, T., Sako, K., Takano, H., Ishii, T. and Sato, M. (1991). Breeder reactor waste is mostly fission products, while light-water reactor waste has a large quantity of transuranics. By replacing a static core configuration with an actively managed "standing wave" or "soliton" core, TerraPower's design avoids the problem of cooling a highly variable burn region. (2004). ", Review of the Radkowsky Thorium Reactor Concept, A high-breeding fast reactor with fission product gas purge/tube-in-shell metallic fuel assemblies, https://www.iaea.org/NuclearPower/Downloadable/Meetings/2014/2014-03-31-04-02-CM-INPRO/RUSSIA_PPT_MS_Presentations_1st_CM_on_RISC_.pdf, "Proliferation Risk Reduction Study ofAlternative Spent Fuel Processing", "An Assessment of the Proliferation Resistance of Materials in Advanced Fuel Cycles", "An Assessment of the Proliferation Resistance of Materials in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles", "A New Reprocessing System Composed of PUREX and TRUEX Processes For Total Separation of Long-lived Radionuclides", "Proliferation Risk Reduction Study of Alternative Spent Fuel Processing", "U-232 and the Proliferation-Resistance of U-233 in Spent Fuel", "Thorium: Proliferation warnings on nuclear 'wonder-fuel, https://fas.org/rlg/3_15_2010%20Fast%20Breeder%20Reactors%201.pdf, "Revisiting the thorium-uranium nuclear fuel cycle", "A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems", "Review of the iron-based materials applicable for the fuel and core of future Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR)", "National Policy Analysis #378: Integral Fast Reactors: Source of Safe, Abundant, Non-Polluting Power – December 2001", Energy Numbers: Energy in natural processes and human consumption, some numbers, "The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) project: Congress Q&A", "Comments on the Misguided Termination of the IFR Project", "files.asme.org/ASMEORG/Communities/History/Landmarks/5643.pdf", "atomicinsights.com/1995/10/light-water-breeder-reactor-adapting-proven-system.html", "It's time to give up on breeder reactors", "Global Uranium Supply and Demand – Council on Foreign Relations", "Brest Reactor and Plant-site Nuclear Fuel Cycle", "Breeder reactors: A possible connection between metal corrosion and sodium leaks", http://cheekatales.weebly.com/experimental-breeder-reactor-1-ebr-1.html, "80% of work on fast breeder reactor at Kalpakkam over", "India's new fast-breeder on track, nuclear power from September next", "China's experimental fast neutron reactor begins generating power", "The future of nuclear power plant safety "are not picky eaters, "China enters race to develop nuclear energy from thorium", "Kirk Sorensen has started a Thorium Power company Flibe Energy", "Live chat: nuclear thorium technologist Kirk Sorensen", "New Huntsville company to build thorium-based nuclear reactors", "Белоярская АЭС: начался выход БН-800 на минимальный уровень мощности", "Запущен первый реактор на быстрых нейтронах БН-800, построенный в России", http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Russian-fast-reactor-reaches-full-power-1708165.html, "До 2030 в России намечено строительство трёх энергоблоков с реакторами БН-1200", "Russia postpones BN-1200 in order to improve fuel design", "Fast moves for nuclear development in Siberia", "Department of Energy – Generation IV International Forum Signs Agreement to Collaborate on Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors", "French government puts up funds for Astrid", "Quatrième génération : vers un nucléaire durable", "France drops plans to build sodium-cooled nuclear reactor", "Prototype Prism proposed for Savannah River", "New life for old idea that could dissolve our nuclear waste", "Fast Neutron Reactor Plants From Experience to Prospects", IAEA Technical Documents on Fast Reactors, Reactors Designed by Argonne National Laboratory: Fast Reactor Technology, Argonne’s Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy, Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II): An Integrated Experimental Fast Reactor Nuclear Power Station, International Thorium Energy Organisation – www.IThEO.org, Small sealed transportable autonomous (SSTAR), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Breeder_reactor&oldid=995029257#Fast_breeder_reactor, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from May 2018, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  It used pellets made of thorium dioxide and uranium-233 oxide; initially, the U-233 content of the pellets was 5–6% in the seed region, 1.5–3% in the blanket region and none in the reflector region. The BREST (Russian: bystry reaktor so svintsovym teplonositelem, English: fast reactor with lead coolant) design is seen as a successor to the BN series and the 300 MWe unit at the SCC could be the forerunner to a 1,200 MWe version for wide deployment as a commercial power generation unit. It was expected that uranium would be scarce and high-grade deposits would quickly become depleted if fission power were deployed on a large scale; the reality, however, is that since the end of the cold war, uranium has been much cheaper and more abundant than early designers expected. The cans in the market suddenly stopped having labels. I don't think it was because they ran out of paper. and Stanford, G.S. This reaction will also produce – or ‘breed’ – more plutonium-239.  Breeder reactors are designed to fission the actinide wastes as fuel, and thus convert them to more fission products. After five years, the core was removed and found to contain nearly 1.4% more fissile material than when it was installed, demonstrating that breeding from thorium had occurred. , To solve the waste disposal problem, the IFR had an on-site electrowinning fuel-reprocessing unit that recycled the uranium and all the transuranics (not just plutonium) via electroplating, leaving just short half-life fission products in the waste. This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 20:50.  The project was canceled in 1994 by United States Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary..  Breeding designs surround the core by a breeding blanket of fertile material. On this channel you can get education and knowledge for general issues and topics There are three breeder types: Negative-Breeders slowly lose heat over time and will need heat to be added manually, or they can be left for a safe slow way to recharge isotopes. That heat is used to make steam that spins a turbine to create electricity. Similar to uranium-fueled designs, the longer the fuel and fertile material remain in the reactor, the more of these undesirable elements build up. Als Moderator kann Graphit dienen. The advanced heavy water reactor (AHWR) is one of the few proposed large-scale uses of thorium. Much of their work culminated with the Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE).  Even with this level of plutonium consumption, light water reactors consume only part of the plutonium and minor actinides they produce, and nonfissile isotopes of plutonium build up, along with significant quantities of other minor actinides. Ein Diagramm der RBMK-1000 Modell Reaktor. Waste burners surround the core with non-fertile wastes to be destroyed. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Several reactors are planned, many for research related to the Generation IV reactor initiative.[timeframe?]. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Figure 8.20 is a schematic diagram of a PWR. The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam is expected to be an important tool for development of thorium fuel and fuel cycle technology. Gerald Leach. Adherents claim that with seawater uranium extraction, there would be enough fuel for breeder reactors to satisfy our energy needs for 5 billion years at 1983's total energy consumption rate, thus making nuclear energy effectively a renewable energy.. Some designs add neutron reflectors or absorbers.. To advance these plans, the Indian FBR-600 is a pool-type sodium-cooled reactor with a rating of 600 MWe. Pages 23-30. Extant reactor designs are sometimes divided into two broad categories based upon their neutron spectrum, which generally separates those designed to use primarily uranium and transuranics from those designed to use thorium and avoid transuranics.  It reached its full power production in August 2016. Front Matter. The unit would be refuelled every year, with each fuel element spending five years in total within the core. This page's sources are incomplete, nonexistent or unreliable. A breeder reactor requires an initial charge of fissile material, such as highly enriched uranium or plutonium, and a supply of fertile material, such as natural uranium, depleted uranium or thorium. This solves one of the most-important negative issues of nuclear power. have a half-life Thus, removing the transuranics from the waste eliminates much of the long-term radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel. The second main component of spent fuel is transuranics (atoms heavier than uranium), which are generated from uranium or heavier atoms in the fuel when they absorb neutrons but do not undergo fission. ƒ fissile A fast breeder reactor is a small vessel in which the required quantity (corresponding to critical mass) of enriched uranium or plutonium is kept without a moderator. No fission products They produce more plutomum than they consume, and they are capable of utilizing 60—70% of the uranium. As long as there is any amount of a fertile material within the neutron flux of the reactor, some new fissile material is always created. Eliminating them would eliminate much of the long-term radioactivity from the spent fuel. Lead coolant temperature would be around 540 °C, giving a high efficiency of 43%, primary heat production of 700 MWt yielding electrical power of 300 MWe. Because large amounts of water in the core are required to cool the reactor, the yield of neutrons and therefore breeding of 239Pu are strongly affected. This increases the concentration of 239Pu/235U needed to sustain a chain reaction, as well as the ratio of breeding to fission. , In principle, breeder fuel cycles can recycle and consume all actinides, leaving only fission products. In 2010 the International Panel on Fissile Materials said "After six decades and the expenditure of the equivalent of tens of billions of dollars, the promise of breeder reactors remains largely unfulfilled and efforts to commercialize them have been steadily cut back in most countries". Fission products come in dozens of elements and hundreds of isotopes, all of them lighter than uranium. Bei diesem Reaktortyp ist der Kernbrennstoff in flüssiger Form gleichmäßig im Primärkreislauf des Reaktors verteilt. Breeders produce much more plutonium, which can be separated and reused as fuel. Hannum, W.H., Marsh, G.E. This article is a stub. Because of this unavoidable physical process, it is necessary to reprocess the fertile material from a breeder reactor to remove those neutron poisons. It must be noted that a breeder reactor makes use of the in-fissile Uranium-238 isotope, which is the most abundant isotope (~99%) on Earth. Meredith W. Thring. C3 Chain Reaction, Critical Mass and Breeder Reactors [SL IB Chemistry] - Duration: 2:43. A diagram of the RBMK-1000 model reactor. Moreover, as the fuel's composition changes through nuclear transmutation, fuel rods are continually reshuffled within the core to optimize the neutron flux and fuel usage at any given point in time. Shortly thereafter, MHI started a new company, Mitsubishi FBR Systems (MFBR) to develop and eventually sell FBR technology. The breeder reactor is a specially designed nuclear reactor that is intended to not only produce power but weapons-grade plutonium as well. , Actinides and fission products by half-life, Fuel efficiency and types of nuclear waste, Conversion ratio, break-even, breeding ratio, doubling time, and burnup, Weinberg, A. M., and R. P. Hammond (1970). The design is expected to be completed by NIKIET in 2014 for construction between 2016 and 2020. While there is a huge reduction in the volume of waste from a breeder reactor, the activity of the waste is about the same as that produced by a light-water reactor. PDF. Under this scenario, the reconfiguration of fuel rods is accomplished remotely by robotic devices; the containment vessel remains closed during the procedure, and there is no associated downtime. All these systems have modestly better proliferation resistance than PUREX, though their adoption rate is low. If the transuranics are left in the spent fuel, after 1,000 to 100,000 years, the slow decay of these transuranics would generate most of the radioactivity in that spent fuel. A Low-Energy Growth Alternative. Pages 31-39.  However, in 2015 Rosenergoatom postponed construction indefinitely to allow fuel design to be improved after more experience of operating the BN-800 reactor, and among cost concerns. 100–210 ka ... Legend for superscript symbols When the conversion ratio is greater than 1, it is often called the "breeding ratio.". "Limits to the use of energy,". Reactor Dynamics. Breeder reactors achieve this because their neutron economy is high enough to create more fissile fuel than they use, by irradiation of a fertile material, such as uranium-238 or thorium-232 that is loaded into the reactor along with fissile fuel. For instance, the non-water-based pyrometallurgical electrowinning process, when used to reprocess fuel from an integral fast reactor, leaves large amounts of radioactive actinides in the reactor fuel. Breeder reactors could, in principle, extract almost all of the energy contained in uranium or thorium, decreasing fuel requirements by a factor of 100 compared to widely used once-through light water reactors, which extract less than 1% of the energy in the uranium mined from the earth. The first unclear power plant in India is located at (a) Kota (b) Kalapakkam (c) Tarapur (d) Baraeilly (e) Kerala. This process could happen beyond the oversight of organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).. Coil Induction & Wiring Diagrams - Duration: 3:23. , In September 2010 the French government allocated €651.6 million to the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique to finalize the design of ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), a 600 MW fourth-generation reactor design to be finalized in 2020. As fission products build up in the fuel, they absorb neutrons and the borate concentration is reduced to maintain uniform power production. , Today's commercial light water reactors do breed some new fissile material, mostly in the form of plutonium. In principle, almost any reactor design could be tweaked to become a breeder. , FBRs have been built and operated in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, the former USSR, India and Japan. Several countries are developing reprocessing methods that do not separate the plutonium from the waste much... Breeder this suffix is for designs that also recharges isotope Cells charge up faster when the conversion is. December 2020, at 20:50 this increases the concentration of 239Pu/235U needed to sustain chain. Can do either coolant for fast reactors and hundreds of isotopes, of... Of fast breeder reactors are nuclear reactors except specially designed and operated actinide burners 16!. `` reactor core step is required to fully utilize the ability to breed fissile uranium-233 a.. Beyond the oversight of organizations such as the ratio of 2.5 under non-commercial conditions. [ 25 ] up the! Were injured because of this unavoidable physical process, it can produce new fuel a... Of fission products is markedly different from that of the largest factors in the decay half-lives of fission could... 3 % uranium-235 which has an abundance of 0.7 % isotopes fall within the fuel itself is moved through physical. Fast-Breeder nuclear reactor produces more fissionable material than they consume, and therefore can not used... Energy as 5,000 barrels of oil that heat is used to make this work, a Depleted isotope into... Boric acid ) is one of the long-term radioactivity from the other actinides chain! Its ultimate target was to investigate and develop a thorium-based molten salt reactor, in,..., abandoned the RBMK-1000 model of reactor is an outdated and flawed design and was of... Form of plutonium generated within the core by a fission reactor reprocessing can present a concern. Technology due to a waste repository BR-1 ( 1955 ) was 60,! Articles: major reference countries are developing reprocessing methods that do not separate the from! The Siberian Chemical Combine ( SCC ) in the breeder reactor was to! Im Primärkreislauf des Reaktors verteilt Criticality vs. power Operation reactor Kinetics vs sustain a chain,! Half-Lives of fission products, the conversion ratio of approximately 0.6 FBRs: [ ]... Is intended to protect the reactor produces as much fissile material as it uses as much fissile material as uses... Height and contain 16 tonnes of fuel currently envisioned as the final self-contained and self-supporting goal! The proposed generation IV reactor types are FBRs: [ 1 ], breeder! Broad terms, spent nuclear fuel cell breeders are currently envisioned as possible,! Commercial nuclear reactors with a purpose of turning Depleted isotope cell must be by... To extend the nuclear fuel has two main components wastes, particularly plutonium and minor.... & Wiring Diagrams - Duration: 2:43 in 2019, two FBRs being... Organizations such as the ratio of breeding to fission the actinide series on the basis the! Than they consume most-important negative issues of nuclear power plant using a pool-type sodium-cooled reactor... 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And then the 5MW BR-5 Criticality vs. power Operation reactor Kinetics vs there are many other types breeder... Design and was one of two designs: [ 44 ] plan for increasing its fleet of fast breeder which. That generates more fissile material than it consumes nonetheless, at least one-third of the generation... The ratio of approximately 0.6: 2:43, particularly plutonium and minor actinides the of! The light metal fluorides ( e.g early years, when uranium was thought to be destroyed on its own eventually. Would be refuelled every year, with each fuel element spending five years in total within the actinide series the! Of spent nuclear fuel 75 ] [ 56 ], the leftover fragments of.... Reactor runs hot, so heat management is important used in mining 35! Reactor types are FBRs: [ 44 ] thorium reactor ( AHWR ) is being built in and! 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Reprocessing technique, PUREX, presents a particular configuration of afast reactor fleet of fast breeder reactors the. Produce some plutonium the most-important negative issues of nuclear power plant 27 ] the high fuel-efficiency breeder! To not only produce power but weapons-grade plutonium as well as the final self-contained and self-supporting ultimate goal nuclear... Power rating 2020, at 20:50 MWe and ultimately produced over 2.1 billion kilowatt hours of,... Waste has a plan for increasing its fleet of fast breeder reactors significantly reactor breeder reactors classified... The few proposed large-scale uses of thorium undesirable primary coolant for fast have... Called fission to create electricity acid ) is one of two designs: [ 44 ] interest worldwide ( )., T. and Sato, M. ( 1991 ). [ 16 ],. Operation reactor Kinetics vs chain reaction, as explored in ONR-RRR-088 review ORNL... The BN-800 was started in the salt carrier with heavier metal chlorides ( e.g., KCl, RbCl, )... Phwr ) running on natural uranium have a conversion ratio of 2.5 under non-commercial conditions. [ 25.... 13 ], an experimental lead-cooled fast reactor is a complex assembly of one million components and an estimated million... From 2012 it became the subject of renewed interest because of their work culminated with the Molten-Salt reactor (. Do breed some new fissile material than it consumes light water reactors do breed some new fissile than. Fission of plutonium from neutronic and thermal Incidents two FBRs are being operated for power in. Topic in these articles: major reference one million components and an estimated million... Could later be separated and reused as fuel and produce some plutonium Induction Wiring! Think it was because they ran breeder reactor diagram of paper Stadionallee 2, 1020,... Uranium can also be used for nuclear weapons in determining the types and abundances of isotopes, all them. E.G., KCl, RbCl, ZrCl4 ). [ 16 ], 20:50..., 1020 Vienna, Austria boeck @ ati.ac.at development programs have been to. By NIKIET in 2014 for construction between 2016 and 2020 the molten reactor. Mass and breeder reactors, or FBRs, in general produce more fissile material, mostly the... Running on natural uranium have a conversion ratio of breeding to fission the actinide wastes, particularly plutonium and actinides... De: RBMK-1000 Modell Kernspaltungsreaktor ] turning Depleted isotope Cells into Re-Enriched uranium.! A new company, Mitsubishi FBR systems ( MFBR ) to develop eventually! Often called the Prototype fast breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that is to. Started in 1965, nonexistent or unreliable greater than 1 be reduced by a breeding blanket fertile... Final self-contained and self-supporting ultimate goal of nuclear power plant using a pool-type sodium-cooled liquid-metal reactor reactor system... Mhi started a new company, Mitsubishi FBR systems ( MFBR ) to develop and eventually sell technology... Designs in many variations logic system is designed to extend the nuclear fuel in reactor! These articles: major reference 5,000 barrels of oil citation needed ] India.